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Population: 1 963.0 ths. people reside in the region.
Autonomous Republic of Crimea is situated at Crimean peninsula in the southern part of Ukraine. It is washed by waters of the Black sea in the west and south and Azov sea in the east. Rivers of Crimea are shallow (the most important rivers are Chernaya/Black, Bel’bek, Utyata, Al’ma, and Salgir). Simferopol water reservoir is situated at Salgir river. Northern-Crimean canal fed by the Dnieper river is situated in the northern part of the peninsula. There are several large salt lakes (Sakskoye, Aktashskoye, Tobechitskoye, Chekratskoye, Krasnoye/Red, Aygulskoye, etc.).
Territory of the Crimean peninsula is washed by the Black and Azov seas belonging to the basin of the Atlantic ocean. The territory is almost at the same distance away from equator and North Pole. The form of the peninsula resembles a rhomb. Its western shore is formed by Tarkhankut peninsula and eastern shore – by Kerch peninsula. Crimea is connected with the neighboring Kherson region in the north by 7 km long Perekopskiy Isthmus. The peninsula stretches for 200 km from the north to the south and for 325 km from the west to the east. Sea borders prevail in the Crimea. The length of coastline approximates 1,000 km.
Verkovnaya Rada (Parliament) of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea is a representative body of the Republic. Verkhovnaya Rada in limits of its power adopts enactments obligatory for execution. Council of Ministers is the Government of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Chairman of the Council of Ministers is appointed and dismissed by Verkhovnaya Rada of Crimea as agreed with the President of Ukraine. Constitution and legislation of Ukraine as well as legislative acts of the Verkhovnaya Rada of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea define powers, order of formation, and activities of Verkhovnaya Rada and Council of Ministers. Justice in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea is administered by courts belonging to the single system of Ukrainian courts.
Simferopol, Sevastopol, Djankoy, Krasnoperekopsk, Feodosiya, Kerch, and Chengar are main railway junctions in the Republic. Road transportation is well developed. Unique mountain trolleybus line Simferopol-Alushta-Yalta is in operation in the peninsula. Coastline and international navigation play an important role in the economy of the Republic. Sevastopol, Feodosiya, Kerch, and Yalta are the main sea ports.
Food, chemical, petrochemical industries, machine building, metal working, and fuel sector are the most important in the pattern of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea industrial potential. The share of foodstuffs in the pattern of consumer goods’ production amounts to 60%. Growing of grain crops, vegetables, horticulture, and viticulture are the main industries of plant growing, while dairy cattle breeding, poultry raising, and sheep breeding dominate in animal husbandry.
There are oak, beech, beech and hornbeam, and sometimes pine tree woods in mountains of the peninsula (especially at the northern mountainside). Flora of Mediterranean type, numerous parks of ornamental trees and bushes, orchards, vineyards, and tobacco plantations can be found in the Southern coast of the peninsula. At present recreational complex of the Crimea embraces 632 resort facilities. Sanatoria are mainly concentrated at the Southern coast of the Crimea and in Evpatoriya. At the same time, a lot of boarding houses are located in south-eastern Crimea, while network of tourist centers is developed in mountainous Crimea. Resort resources of the peninsula are unique, because it has curative mineral springs and muds along with favorable climatic conditions and diversified nature. The Crimean peninsula distinguishes with variety of natural landscapes. Steppe is situated in its northern part, while Crimean mountains covered with forests are in the southern part. Mountain system stretches in three chains from Sevastopol to Feodosiya. The highest peaks are located in Main or Southern ridge. The highest mountain of the Crimean peninsula Roman-Kosh (1,545 m) is located here.
Climate in the northern part of the peninsula is moderate continental. Average temperature in January reaches -1–2 ?С, and in July +24 ?С. There is Mediterranean climate at the Southern coast with average temperature in January being +4 ?С, and in July +24 ?С. Crimea is included into the list of relatively favorable regions for development of agriculture by amount of moisture and warmness. Seaside (from 2 to 5 km) stretches along Southern coast. Famous resorts Yalta, Alupka, Simeiz, Gurzuf, Miskhor, Livadiya, Foros, and Alushta are situated there. Sevastopol and Balaklava bays are the most convenient at the Black Sea shore.
The following establishments are included into the cultural network of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea: public libraries, clubs, museums with branches, concert organizations, and esthetic education schools. Crimean academic Russian drama theater, Crimean-Tatar music and drama theater, State chamber theater after Gorky, Crimean puppet theater, Crimean republican museum of local lore, history and economy, Simferopol art museum, Livadiya palace museum, museum of Chekhov, Crimean-Tatar art museum, and Bakhchisaray state historical and cultural reserve operate in the peninsula. The following art objects were situated at the territory of modern Crimea: capital city of Tsar Scythians – Scythian Naples, antique towns Chersonese, Pantikapey, Nimphey, Kerkinitida, and Kimmerik, as well as Byzantine settlements Gorzuvity and Aluston. There are 3,820 historical and cultural monuments at the territory of Crimea (except for the city of Sevastopol).
The following materials were used for preparation of the article:
Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea,
Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine,
Ministry of foreign affairs of Ukraine